In Computers as Mindtools for Engaging Learners in Critical Thinking (1998), David Jonassen, Chad Carr, and Hsiu-Ping Yeuh propose that learning is an active and creative process where information is processed “mindfully” (p.30), since the learner not only collects information, but also constructs a format for representing that information and transforming it into knowledge rather than merely aggregating units of information. This process of actively creating knowledge reflects the learner’s particular understanding and conception of the information; their own act of [knowledge] creation requires a relevant, environmental context.
Jonassen argues that while there are
numerous solutions to over-reliance on single formalisms for knowledge representation, an effective method (though not the only method) for supporting the representation of learner knowledge through multiple formalisms is to use computers as Mindtools to represent their knowledge. Mindtools are knowledge construction tools that learners learn with, not from. In this way, learners function as interpreters, organizers, and designers of their personal knowledge. Each Mindtool uses a different formalism for representing learners’ knowledge, engaging a different set of critical cognitive skills.
He posits that technology, and particularly networked computers provide an appropriate environment for Mindtools to function. Jonassen (1994) identifies eight characteristics of the Constructivist learning environment (see Table 1). Computer-based technologies should be used to keep learners active, constructive, collaborative, intentional, complex, contextual, conversational, and reflective (pp.28-32) (see Figure 1).
Carr, C., Jonassen, D. H., & Hsiu-Ping, Y. (1998). Computers as Mindtools for Engaging Learners in Critical Thinking. TechTrends 43(2). pp.24-32. March 1998 [Internet] accessed 17 October 2017, <https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%252FBF02818172.pdf>.